A study on the forest based livelihood of the tribal populace of Ranchi district of Jharkhand
The present investigation was carried out at different villages of Angara and Silli blocks of Ranchi district during January-2011 to May-2011 with the help of questionnaires and interview among the selected villagers.
Sixty three families from seven different villages namely, Kuturlowa, Hundrujara, Putadag, Harjanum, Banbrwadih (from Angara block) and Jumla, Thungrudih (from Silli block) were selected for the study. Almost all selected farming families fall either under marginal or small category. Different vegetables such as dummar, koinar sag, genthi, tewna, petiya, dura, bengo, jerbhanja, kachnar phool, jilhur phool, koreya phool etc. among the summer vegetables; karile, kheksa, kundri, asari, bamboo mushroom, rugra, wild colocasia among rainy seasonal vegetables and ketal sag, pechki sag, genthi, tewna, petiya, dura, bengo,jerbhanja, koreya phool etc. among the winter seasonal vegetables were the important supplementary food items from the forest for the villagers of studied areas. Similarly, different fruits like kend, piyar, bheluwa, bael among summer seasonal fruits; black berry, kusum, mahuwa among rainy seasonal fruits and aonla (winter seasonal fruit) were the supplementary sources of fruits from the forest for the villagers of the studied situates. Different edible oil sources available from the surrounding forests of the studied villages were mahuwa, kusum, kujri etc. Among the fuel wood trees sal, koreya, putri, sidha, bael, lerusinduar etc. were the important for the almost all villagers of the studied areas. Bamboo, chiru grass, charchota, woods of different trees like kusum, dhautha, koreya, doka, sisal etc. that were available from the nearby forests and used by the selected villagers for the preparation of different manufacturing items like bamboo broom, plough, khatiya, guldasta, crocodile, knife etc. Collections of honey and mahua flowers emerged as another source of supplementary income from the forest resources for the studied area’s selected villagers. Lakshaman buti, Purnowa (Khaprasag), Gogotaro (Sathavari-Asparagus racemosus), Srutisag root, Chirchiti (Apang-Achyranthus aspera) root, Jhalerpeti root, Mungamala root, Charpeti, Behra fruit, Baibedia, Aonla fruit, Darchini, Jethimod, Ashwagandha, Elaichi, Gorbach/Gorbacc (Sweet Flag-Acorus calamus) etc. emerged as the important medicinal plants available in the forests for curing different diseases like Mirgi, Gethibat (Rheumatism), Chakar Aana etc. indigenously for the selected villagers of all villages of the studied locations.
Different food items like vegetables, fruits and sources of edible oil are available in the nearby forests that were used by the selected villagers as supplementary foodstuffs for daily consumption throughout the year. The selected nine villagers of Banbrwadih had the opportunity to collect the maximum amount of vegetables (2804.22 kg/year) from the adjacent forests with the per capita availability of 59.66 kg/year because they have 47 family members whereas the nine selected villagers of Hundrujara obtained only 881.37 kg vegetables per year from the nearby forest with per capita availability of only 16.95 kg/year because they have 52 family members. On the contrary, the selected villagers of Hundrujara gained more fruits per year (1652.67 kg) from their surrounding forests with the per capita availability of kg per year as compared to other selected villages. While the nine selected villagers of Kuturlowa extracted the lowest amount of fruits per year (520.83 kg) with per capita availability of 10.63 kg/year because the nine selected villagers’ family consists of 49 members. The nine selected villagers of Putadag had the opportunity to collect 197.98 kg of different sources of edible oils from the nearby forest per year with per capita availability of only 1.43 kg/year for 54 family members. Almost in all of the cases, the per capita availability of these essential food items was far below the recommendation of Indian Council of Medical Research.
The family wise average annual income from the supplementary forest resources were studied in the scheme and it was observed that the highest per family income of Rs. 27736.11 for the Hundrujara village followed by Kuturlowa (Rs. 18163.89), Thungrudih (Rs. 18138.78), Jumla (Rs. 16861.67), Harjanum (Rs. 16623.67), Putadag (Rs. 16328.22) and the lowest of Rs. 13803.22 for Banbrwadih. It was also scrutinized that the lower supplementary income from the forest resources indicating dependency on other professions rather than forest collection by the selected villagers of the studied situates.
Keywords: Forest based livelihood, tribal populace, forest products, Ranchi district