Analysis of Socio-Economic Status and Livelihood Pattern of Kawali village, Namkum Block, Ranchi District, Jharkhand
The present investigation was carried out at the Kawali village of Namkum block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand during February-2013 to June-2013. This investigation was completed through questionnaire, personal interview, and photography and collecting of other relevant information of the village as related to the study with discussing among the selected farmers and the villagers.
It revealed that there are two different communities that live altogether in that village. The population of the Hindu community was much lower than the Christian community and the sex ratio was also much higher than the Hindu community. Literacy status was not much at the satisfactory level i.e. only 58% literate population was noted in the village. There was various dimension of livelihood source that were identified among the villagers such as agriculture, labour, agriculture and labour, only service as well as service along with agriculture. Though the main livelihood source of the villagers was wage labour but they also practiced agriculture which was very seasonal in nature i.e. only the time of rainy season the villagers cultivated different crops in their field, but during the summer season the villagers used to migrate to the other region or other state or near city to work as a daily wage labour. Lack of irrigational facilities forced them to divert or engage in the labour sector as cultivation of agricultural crops not remunerative. Lack of social integration or participation in the developmental issues was widely identified among the villager resulting as for example: underutilization irrigational tank with a command area of 150 acre made from MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly) fund.
This study revealed that the daily wage labour was main occupation of the villagers of the Kawali while the agriculture as practiced by the villagers was very seasonal so it can be concluded that the livelihood status was very unsustainable. The villagers of Kawali were engaged in such type of livelihood which was failed to provide them livelihood security throughout the year.
Keywords: Socio-Economic Status, Livelihood Pattern, Namkum block